Myanmar lies in the Asia Continent, to be exact, located in the south-east Asia with the long coastal line on its south-west which is dotted with over 500 islands in different sizes, the potentiality to be transformed to the best seaside resorts. It has an area of 676577 sq km, sandwiched between two very large countries, India on its west and China to the east. It is located between latitude 10 and 28 degrees north, and longitude 92 and 101 degrees east. Its neighbouring countries are Bangladesh, India on its west and north-west, with China on its north, north-east and east, with Thailand, Laos on its east and south-east and to the south and south-west, are Bay of Bengal and Andaman sea.
Myanmar, in deed, is surrounded with the ranges of hills and mountains of Rakhineyoma, BagaoYoma, Chin Hills and Shan Plateaus. Seventy five percent of its land used to be covered with thick forests and Myanmar Teak is the most well-known and valuable wood apart from the various kinds of hard wood. It has the 3 main rivers of Ayeyarwaddy with its large tributary Chindwin, Sittaung and Thanlwin. Among them, Ayeyarwaddy is the longest river having about 1350 miles, flowing through the whole country starting from the northern most snow-capped mountains to the south to join the Indian Ocean.
Regarding climate, there are three seasons in Myanmar, namely, Summer, which is from March to May, the rainy season from June to October and winter, November to February. Climate varies from regions to regions befitting the country’s diverse geography. In the river valleys and delta including Yangon, which is not far from the mouth of the sea, the rainfall per year is about 100 inches or 254 cm and the average temperature is cir 29 degree C but in April, the hottest month in summer, the temperature can go up between 40 and 45 degree C. On the other hand, the temperature in such cold months as December and January, can go down to about 18 degree C.
In the higher elevation areas such as Kalaw, Inle, Pindaya, Pyinulwin, Aungpan, Taunggyi, Thibaw, Lashio, Muse, Namkham in the Shan State,Kachin, Chin States to the north and north-west of Myanmar, the average temperature is 21, 25 degree C the whole year round and in winter it can drop to the freezing point. Snow can be found only in the northern most part of Myanmar where the world-wide known snow-capped mountains lie majestically, among them Hkakaborazi, 5881 m, the highest and the most difficult to conquer, is a virgin mountain challenging the best mountaineers in the world.
The dry zone in central Burma, the temperature is generally about 32 degree C and in the cold season, it can go down to certain extent, especially in the morning and in the late evening, sometimes to 15, 16 degree C. The famous touring sights as Bagan, Mandalay have few rains and are comparatively hot in summer as they are called as the rain shadow area. The coastal areas in the west and south have very high annual rainfall, which is about 200 inches or 508 cm.
Myanmar has a long line of history and present day Myanmar was inhabited by our ancient ancestors since BC according to the available tangible documents. Thayekhittaya, Beikthanoe, Hanlin, the first ever founded Myanmar kingdoms of Pyu Tribes now extinct, are dated back to between 2nd century and 9th century AD and they have recently been listed as the world heritage sights by UNESCOand some more historical ancient sights are in the process of being acknowledged. This 2nd-9th-century-AD period can be regarded as the First Myanmar Empire.
The Second Myanmar Empire flourished for more than 300 years between 11th and early 14th Century AD with the founder King Anawrahta( 1044-1077 AD ) at the ancient archaeological sight, Bagan, where more than 4000 religious monuments of 11th, 12th, 13th centuries, can be observed. Bagan’s uniqueness is incomparable in every aspects and it is still comparatively unknown forgotten treasure, manifesting its once rich social, political, economical through these majestically standing edifices. Its nearby former volcano, Mt.Popa, referred to as an oasis in the desert, which last eruptions calculated by the geologists, happened 15 millions year ago, has become the extinct volcano since 7000 years ago, is located to the south east of Bagan.
The Third Myanmar Empire was founded by King Bayinnaung ( ) in the 16th century in Bago also known as Hammthawaddy and it was the largest empire ever founded by Burmese warrior kings of those days. Part of the palace site was reclaimed back by the Myanmar archaeological department and now-a-days, Bee Throne building and the front pavilion can be observed. In fact, Bago played then an important maritime trade before Yangon took its place as a main overseas port.
The Fourth Myanmar Empire was founded by King AlaungPhaya ( ) in mid 18th century, which lasted until 1885 when it was annexed into the British Indian Empire after successive 3 Anglo-Burmese wars. Then Yangon ( Rangoon) became the administrative city of the British, played a very important role for the maritime trade. Myanmar became the biggest rice exporting country in the word together with its forestry, marine products including minerals__ gold, silver, jade, amber, ruby, sapphire, amethyst, peridot, coal, tungsten, copper, natural gas and petroleum, etc. In 1948, Myanmar regained its independence from the British