Myanmar is situated in the Asia Continent, to be exact, in the south-east Asia with the long coastal line, on its south-west, dotted with more than 800 islands in different sizes____ a potentiality for some of these islands to be transformed into the best eco-friendly seaside resorts in the world. Myanmar has an area of 676,577 sq km, sandwiched between the two very large countries, India on its west and China to its east. It lies between latitudes 9° and 29°N, and longitudes 92° and 102°E. Its neighbouring countries are Bangladesh, India on its west and north-west, China on its north, north-east and east, Thailand, Laos on its east and south-east and the Bay of Bengal & the Andaman sea lie to its south and south-west.
There are many ranges of hills and mountains such as the Rakhine Yoma, the Bago Yoma, the Chin Hills and the Shan Plateaus, the Tanesserim Hills and all of which run north-to-south from the Himalayas. Seventy five percent of its land used to be covered with thick forests and Myanmar Teak is the most well-known and valuable wood apart from the various kinds of hard wood. It has the 3 main rivers, the longest Ayeyarwaddy/Irrawaddy with its large tributary Chindwin, the shortest Sittaung and the Thanlwin/Salween. Among them, the 1,350-mile-long Ayeyarwaddy flows through the whole country starting from the northern most snow-capped mountains to the south to join the Indian Ocean.
Regarding climate, there are three seasons in Myanmar, namely, Summer, which is from March to May, the rainy season from June to October and winter, November to February. Climate varies from regions to regions befitting the country’s diverse geography. In the river valleys and delta including Yangon, which is not far from the mouth of the sea, the rainfall per year is about 100 inches or 254 cm and the average temperature is cir 29 degree C but in April, the hottest month in summer, the temperature can go up between 40 and 45 degree C. On the other hand, the temperature in such cold months as December and January, can go down to about 20 degree C.
In the higher elevation areas such as Kalaw, Inle, Pindaya, Pyinulwin, Aungpan, Taunggyi, Thibaw, Lashio, Muse, Namkham in the Shan State,Kachin, Chin States to the north and north-west of Myanmar, the average temperature is 21, 25 degree C the whole year round and in winter it can drop to a freezing point in some of these places. Snow can be found only in the northern most part of Myanmar where the world-wide known snow-capped mountains lie majestically, among them Hkakaborazi, 5881 m, the highest and the most difficult to conquer, is a virgin mountain challenging the best mountaineers in the world and so far only 4 very well-seasoned climbers have claimed to reach its summit.
In the dry zone in central Burma, the daytime temperature is generally about 30 degree C the whole year round and in the cold season, it can go down to a certain extent, especially in the morning and in the late evening, sometimes to 15, 16 degree C. Such famous touring sights as Bagan, Mandalay have fewer rains and are comparatively hot in summer and accordingly they are dubbed as " the rain shadow area ". The coastal areas in the west and south have very high annual rainfall, which is about 200 inches or 508 cm.
Myanmar has a long line of history and present day Myanmar was a home of our ancient ancestors since BC according to the available tangible documents. Thayekhittaya, Beikthanoe, Hanlin, the first ever founded Myanmar kingdoms of Pyu Tribes now extinct, are dated back to between 2nd century and 9th century AD and they have recently been listed as the 3-in-one world heritage sight by UNESCO and some more historical ancient sights are in the process of being acknowledged. This 2nd-9th-century-AD period can be regarded as the First Myanmar Empire.
The Second Myanmar Empire flourished for more than 300 years between the 11th and early 14th Century AD with the founder King Anawrahta ( 1044-1077 AD ) at the ancient archaeological sight, Bagan, where more than 4,000 religious monuments of mainly 11th, 12th, 13th centuries, can be observed. Bagan’s uniqueness is incomparable in almost every aspect and it is still comparatively unknown forgotten treasure, manifesting its once rich social, political, economical through these majestically standing edifices. Its nearby extinct volcano, Mt.Popa, referred to as an oasis in the desert____the last eruptions of it calculated by the geologists, happened 15 millions year ago & it has become the extinct volcano since 7,000 years ago___ is located to the south east of Bagan.
The Third Myanmar Empire was founded by King Bayinnaung ( AD 1551-1581 ) in the 16th century in Bago also known as Hammthawaddy and it was the largest empire ever founded by the Burmese warrior kings of those days. Part of the palace site was reclaimed back by the Myanmar archaeological department and now-a-days, Bee Throne building and the front pavilion can be observed together with a few ruined sites plus a reconstructed small museum, a pond & a hall where excavated stumps of the teak posts are housed . In fact, Bago played then an important maritime trade before Yangon took its place as a main overseas port.
The Fourth Myanmar Empire was founded by King Alaung Phaya (AD 1752-1760 ) in mid 18th century, which lasted until 1885 when it was annexed into the British Indian Empire after successive 3 Anglo-Burmese wars. Then Yangon aka Rangoon became the administrative city of the British, played a very important role for the maritime trade. Myanmar became the biggest rice exporting country in the world together with its forestry, marine products including minerals__ gold, silver, jade, amber, ruby, sapphire, amethyst, peridot, coal, tungsten, copper, natural gas and petroleum, etc. In 1948, Myanmar regained its independence from the British